Regulation of plasminogen activation on cell surfaces and fibrin.

Article Details


Urano T, Castellino FJ, Suzuki Y

Regulation of plasminogen activation on cell surfaces and fibrin.

J Thromb Haemost. 2018 May 20. doi: 10.1111/jth.14157.

PubMed ID
29779246 [ View in PubMed

The fibrinolytic system dissolves fibrin and maintains vascular patency. Recent advances in imaging analyses allowed visualization of the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanism of fibrinolysis, as well as its regulation by other plasma hemostasis cofactors. Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) retain tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) after secretion and maintain high plasminogen (plg) activation potential on their surfaces. As in plasma, the serpin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), regulates fibrinolytic potential via inhibition of the VEC surface-bound plg activator, tPA. Once fibrin is formed, plg activation by tPA is initiated and effectively amplified on the surface of fibrin, and fibrin is rapidly degraded. The specific binding of plg and tPA to lytic edges of partly degraded fibrin via newly generated C-terminal lysine residues, which amplifies fibrin digestion, is a central aspect of this pathophysiological mechanism. Thrombomodulin (TM) plays a role in the attenuation of plg binding on fibrin and the associated fibrinolysis, which is reversed by a carboxypeptidase B inhibitor. This suggests that the plasma procarboxypeptidase B, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), which is activated by thrombin bound to TM on VECs, is a critical aspect of the regulation of plg activation on VECs and subsequent fibrinolysis. Platelets also contain PAI-1, TAFI, TM, and the fibrin cross-linking enzyme, factor (F) XIIIa, and either secrete or expose these agents upon activation in order to regulate fibrinolysis. In this review, the native machinery of plg activation and fibrinolysis, as well as their spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms, as revealed by imaging analyses, are discussed.

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