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Bronchopneumonia is a disease with an inflammatory and infectious genesis that affects the pulmonary apparatus. The development of bronchopneumonia occurs with the formation of loci of inflammation of a small-focal and large-focal nature, localized in the structural units of the structure of the lung tissue - lobules.


Acute bronchopneumonia is most often manifested by the mechanism of longitudinal spread with successive retraction into the process of more and more volumetric areas, starting from the terminal bronchi, then further involving the bronchioles and ending with the alveolar passages.


And, very sporadically encountered, also in practice, the transverse or so-called peribronchial path. A favorite site for the localization of the disease of acute bronchopneumonia, in most cases, are the lower sections-segments of the lung, and the defeat of the apical lobules is considered atypical.


Acute bronchopneumonia occupies a leading position relative to the number of other subtypes of inflammatory lung pathology, accounting for almost half of all cases diagnosed in medical practice, but at the same time, bronchopneumonia progresses rather slowly, develops and the symptom complex of the disease is often quite blurry, blurry, has a great variety of manifestations, duplicates and masks for other respiratory diseases.

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Also, in children, the primary development of the focus is not typical, but in the older group it is just the opposite - it appears as an independent primary developed disorder. Pathogenetic phenomena of Lasix are explained by the accumulation of exudative fluid, which is localized in the alveolar sacs, which makes it difficult for the normal breathing process. Alveolar exudate, in most studies, proved to be represented by serous contents with a slight leukocyte admixture and epithelial cells.

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Therefore, when conducting a survey based on anamnestic data, the patient often will not be able to accurately indicate the time interval for the onset of the disease. Bronchopneumonia in children is still somewhat different from the adult cohort of the population, manifesting itself rather as a consequence even with minor viral infectious lesions, that is, uncomplicated pathologies and, often quite the same, after recovering from the flu.

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Bronchopneumonia with hemorrhagic manifestations can occur in isolated situations, since the process of damage to the walls of blood vessels is not pronounced, so bleeding during coughing is not typical and not typical for this pathology. With excessive activitypathogenic microflora, which is located in places of accumulation of sputum, pulmonary edema may form, which will lead to further inflammation. But, unlike the older population, in children, the foci are more often single and do not exceed a range of more than 1 cm in diameter in size.


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Usually, the etiopathophysiological process of bronchopneumonia is completely resolved safely, however, in advanced cases, a transition to chronicity, severe nosological manifestations with the development of gangrenous changes and abscess formation is possible. The causes of bronchopneumonia are very multifaceted and diverse, but entirely tied to seasonal fluctuations, most often occur during the cold seasons and during epidemiologically unfavorable periods. Also, etiopathogenetic mechanisms are directly related to the lines of spread of the infectious process, and in fact - the lymphogenous, bronchogenic, hematogenous path.

Migraine headaches (exhausting), decreased appetite, weakness, sweating, respiratory failure, cyanosis of the skin, retrosternal pain on inhalation-exhalation and coughing, hyperthermic phenomena up to 38.8 - 39.6 ° C, in the elderly, normothermic phenomena or subfebrile. The cough is dry, changing to productive with significant discharge of clear or purulent-mucous sputum.

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On physical examination: weakened breathing over the lesions and very widespread hard over the rest of the captured surface of the lungs, auscultatory heard moist sonorous fine bubbling and crepitant rales, as a result of concomitant bronchitis - dry scattered, pleural friction noise, percussion sound muffled dull, tachycardia 125 beats /min., tachypnea 33/min., muffled heart sounds.

Damage to the nervous system: clouding of consciousness, dyssomnia, nervous overexcitation and hallucinogenic delirium, vomiting, signs of hyperemia, irritation and damage to the meninges. Retrosternal pain is more typical to manifest itself on the side of the lesion. The reaction of the pleura is very pronounced - a sharp piercing pain on inhalation-exhalation, when coughing, sneezing, gives into the shoulder blades and radiates along the back, into the abdominal area, shoulders, hips. And yet, with a deep localization of the lesion or in the apical lobes of the lung, there is no pain at all.

In addition, there may be: herpetic eruptions on the lips, yellowness of the mucous membranes and sclera, constipation, swelling of the intestines, white coating on the tongue. Tachycardiological disorders from 125 beats / min, hypotension. Up to a collaptoid state: a sharp blanching, sticky-cold sweating, loss of clarity of consciousnessanemia, the veins subside, the pulse is thready, the veins of the neck swell.

Cough, in its primary form, is initially dry and brings discomfort, painful, then comes the separation of lasix pill, ​​thick and viscous, viscous thin sputum. On examination, it is noted that the person lies on the side affected by bronchopneumonia, as a result of severe pain, because he spares his sick side so much during the act of breathing, we see a feverish blush with cyanosis on the face.

Signs of bronchopneumonia are distinguishable and depending on the presented etiopathogenetic root cause: Acute bronchopneumonia of postoperative origin is dangerous due to the provoked development of inhibition of the functional characteristics of the respiratory system and the vascular system, lightning-fast progression of symptoms due to suppressed immunological forces.